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I. Jaclyn Alfaro & Garrett Wilson
Medtronic & Anesthesiology
Medtronic: History, Methods and Stents
"To contribute to human welfare by application of biomedical engineering in the research, design, manufacture, and sale of instruments or appliances that alleviate pain, restore health, and extend life.
To direct our growth in the areas of biomedical engineering where we display maximum strength and ability; to gather people and facilities that tend to augment these areas; to continuously build on these areas through education and knowledge assimilation; to avoid participation in areas where we cannot make unique and worthy contributions."
Help medical professionals develop solutions to their patient's life-altering disorders.
- Cardiac Rhythm Disease Management: Focuses on managing the entire spectrum of cardiac rhythm disorders to imporove the patient's care. Medtronic works together to help develop strategies that result in innovative solutions that address a patient's cardiac conditions.
- CardoVascular: Focuses on delivering products and therapies for coronary artery, vascular and structural heart disease. Medtronic offers a unique product portfolio to address the cardiovascular diseases by surgical or interventional therapies.
Medtronic's first office building and manufacturing facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
-"Medtronic was founded in 1949 by Earl E. Bakken and the late Palmer J. Hermundslie.Since developing the first wearable external cardiac pacemaker in 1957 and manufacturing the first reliable long-term implantable pacing system in 1960, Medtronic has been the world's leading producer of pacing technology. Today, Medtronic is the world's leading medical technology company, providing lifelong solutions for people with chronic disease."
Medtronic Europe headquarters in Tolochenaz, Switzerland.
To serve the needs of patients in developing countries, Medtronic opened a facility in China in 1997.
Medtronic World Headquarters in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Rate responsive pacemakers
"Spring coil" transvenous pacing leads
Sutureless pacing leads
Tined pacing leads
Tiered-therapy implantable cardioverter-defibrillators
Implantable, programmable neurostimulation devices to control chronic pain and uncontrolled tremor
Implantable, externally programmable drug delivery systems
Modular coronary stents
Distal protection systems
Wearable continuous glucose monitoring systems
Multiple basal and bolus programming features in ambulatory external insulin pumps
Implantable neurostimulators for bladder and bowel control problems
Transurethral needle ablation for benign prostatic hyperplasia or "enlarged prostate"
Bi-ventricular pacing/cardiac resynchronization devices for heart failure
Internet-based system that allows cardiac device patients to transmit data from their implanted devices
AneuRx Stent Graft--
- Largest clinical cohort:600 patients with five year follow up
- More then 70,000 implants worldwide
- eleven years experience
- five year clinical data
- It acquired the business in 1999 from Santa Rosa's Arterial Vascular Engineering for 3.7 billion dollars.
Compared to open heart surgery--
- Shorter time in ICU
- Shorter hospital stays
- Faster recovery
- Less severe complications
*Self- expanding, diamond shape nitinol elements supply high radial force for secure sealing and fixation without barbs or hooks.
*Inserted into patient's clogged arteries to keep blood flowing.
*New drugs and materials to help keep the arteries from reclogging, Endeavor is next generation of coronary stents.
*Develops stent technology in ultra-clean labs and makes microscopic welds on stent segments as thin as human hair.
*It is a drug coated stent.
*Spent five years and millions of dollars developing Endeavor.
*Endeavor could grow to 3 billion annually by 2011.
"Overall the clinical results are impressive and show that more than 95 percent of the patients who received an Endeavor stent in the trial required no further treatment or revascularization at the original treatment site at the nine month assessment period," said Dr. Wijns. "The Endeavor stent's performance in this trial provides substantial evidence that the Endeavor drug eluting stent is safe and that it substantially reduces clinical restenosis compared to a bare metal stent. These clinical results, taken together with the ease of use of the Driver stent platform, establish the Endeavor stent as a valuable treatment option for patients undergoing angioplasty with drug eluting stents."
The Press Democrat
*The Endeavor stent, which is coated with an anti-clotting drug designed to reduce the rate of complications, had shown promise as an improvement over existing stents because of the remarkably low number of blood clots that formed in the long term after implantation. Very recent data, though, suggested that the Endeavor stent may have a very slightly higher rate of early blood clots compared to stents already on the market.
Craig Weber, M.D.
By Associated Press [[
History of Anesthesiology
Before the discovery of anesthesia over a century ago, relatively little surgery could be performed.
Simple conditions such as appendicitis was fatal because the patient was inoperable.
Nitrous Oxide was the first "anesthetic" to be used in an operation.
produced a state of intoxication where the patient became insensitive to pain.
In 1842, Dr. Crawford Long of Georgia used ether to perform the first painless surgery.
After World War II ended in 1945, major developments in the field of anesthesiology opened new windows of medical and surgical care that were previously unimaginable.
-- "General" refers to total body anesthesia. The body is brought to a level of sleep where there is no sensation, memory or movement. Anesthesiologists use medications called "general anesthetics" that are given intravenously or are inhaled. The level of anesthesia is constantly fine-tuned by the anesthesiologist for each patient. General anesthesia is reversed at the end of surgery and the patient is taken to the recovery room.
-- "Regional" refers to numbing only a part of the body. Medications called "local anesthetics" are injected to make nerves numb. Patients may be awake or asleep. If awake, a patient may feel movement and pressure but not any pain. Three common types of regional anesthesia are spinals, epidurals and "peripheral nerve blocks." Spinals and epidurals are injections of local anesthetics that
make the spinal cord "sleep" in specific locations corresponding to the place of surgery. Peripheral nerve blocks numb specific nerves coming from the surgery site.
-- "Local" refers to injection of local anesthetic at the actual site of surgery. It is usually only useful for operations on small areas. This is sometimes used with monitored anesthesia care.
Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC)?
Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC) means there is an anesthesiologist at the patient's side who is completely devoted to monitoring and caring for the patient so the surgeon can focus on the operation. The surgeon often uses local anesthesia while the anesthesiologist provides sedation or "light anesthesia." The anesthesiologist both fine-tunes the sedation and manages the patient's medical conditions. Sometimes a trained anesthesiologist is asked solely to help manage medical conditions.
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