Acupuncture; Massage Muscle therapy

The purpose of the article, “Effects of Massage on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness, Swelling, and Recovery of Muscle Function” is to examine the effects of massage on delayed-onset muscle soreness, muscle strength, range of motion, swelling, and a biochemical marker of muscle damage in the blood using the arm-to-arm comparison model. Depending on the outcome of these tests, the results may or may not help athletes and athletic trainers.


The subjects being studied in this research are to help find out whether or not a three hour massages after strenuous exercise will reduce or completely stop soreness, swelling, and/or help the recovery of the muscles in any way. This is tested with ten healthy subjects with no history of upper arm injury and with no experience of any type in resistance training. These ten subjects were split up into five men and five women and during the duration of this testing, they were asked not to take any medication, do strenuous exercise, or to change their diet. If this procedure is followed correctly, the data recovered from the testing will be more accurate and more consistent. This procedure went on for two weeks.


What was being done and observed about the subjects first consisted of screening the subjects and obtaining information about them. Once the data was collected, the subjects were asked to come in on days; one, two, three, four, seven, ten, and fourteen. All measurements were taken before, immediately after, and thirty minutes after exercise. The subjects performed identical maximal exercises for the elbow flexors. For the exercise, subjects were seated on an arm curl bench doing sixty maximal eccentric actions which consisted of ten sets of six repetitions, with three minute rests in between. After the entire exercise, they received a three hour break. The control subjects took their break and went home while the massage subjects, after their three hour break, had a massage at the strained muscles for ten minutes.


The results of the research showed many things of interests. The control subjects and the massage subjects showed no significant differences in strength. The subjects also did not show any significant differences in range of motion. However, there was a very significant amount of difference in dealing with the delayed-onset muscle soreness. In dealing with muscle soreness, there was more than a 30% decrease in muscle soreness. Also, there was a decrease in muscle swelling when the subjects had the massage. Lastly, there was no type of positive effects with massages on recovery of muscle function. It is important to remember that the massage, in order to take complete affect, must be after the three hour resting period but before muscle soreness arises.

These results affect sports medicine and/or athletic training by the affect that they will have with their athletes. If these results were to be noticed by the athletic trainers, they would know more about the effects of massages and how they can benefit the athletes. Due to this information, athletic trainers who know about this will instruct their athletes to massage their muscles to reduce soreness. This is especially important for those newer athletes who have not experienced muscle soreness before. With this information, coaches, athletes, and athletic trainers can better help with muscle soreness. This information has the potential to inform and even improve sports medicine, athletic trainers, and athletes all around.



· More then 2,000 years ago, Chinese doctors came up with a new medical procedure called acupuncture, since then it has become one of the most commonly used medical procedures around the world.
· It is the belief of acupuncturists that when somebody is sick, hurt, or has a disease, it is because a passage in your body is blocking the chi and your body’s yin and yang are not balanced
· So they practice the inserting of tiny needles into patient’s “acupuncture points” or anatomical points to open up the blocked passageway and balance the yin and yang to help alleviate pain, discomfort, or disease.
· Acupuncturists use over 500 different points all over the human body to insert the needles, each point having its own effect on the body.

· The needles used are much smaller then your typical needles, the needles have a diameter of only 0.18 mm to 0.51 mm.
· These special needles are used to make the procedure practically painless.
· There are variations of acupuncture used such as auriculotherapy, the use of the ear to heal all organ problems, and reflexology, the use of the foot to cure diseases and injury.

· About 10 to 15 million Americans spend about $500 million on acupuncture to help cure the following: AIDS, allergies, asthma, arthritis, bladder and kidney problems, bronchitis, colds, constipation, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, drug detoxification, fatigue, flu, gynecologic disorders, headaches, high blood pressure, migraines, muscle spasms, paralysis, PMS, sciatica, sexual dysfunction, sleep disorders, smoking, stress, stroke, tendonitis, and vision problems.
· In 1996, the FDA made laws to help protect patients, where before nobody could be too certain about the needles, disposable needles are now used so that sterile needles are used once and then thrown away, making it more sanitary.
· Scientists believe that the reason a patient feels different after a visit is because the needles stimulate the body and release endorphins. The same effect that a jalapeño has on the body. It is also believed that acupuncture works only because of its psychological mechanisms and counter-irritations.

· Although most of the time, patients feel no or minimal pain, a needle placed wrong or the patient moving too much during the procedure could cause soreness and discomfort during the procedure.
· There are a few other little risks about acupuncture. There have been reports of the lungs or bladder being punctured, broken needles, or allergic reaction.
· Acupuncture can also be harmful for the fetus in early stages of pregnancy because it may stimulate the production of certain hormones that affect birth. So please if you pregnant, stay away from acupuncture.